4.8 The student will investigate and understand the relationships among Earth, the moon, and the sun. Key
a) the motions of Earth, the moon, and the sun;
c) the causes for the phases of the moon;
d) the relative size, position, age, and makeup of Earth, the moon, and the sun; and
e) historical contributions in understanding the Earth-moon-sun system.
This video talks about Galileo, Copernicus, and Ptolemy, and how their insights and contributions helped to shape our understanding of the movements and orbits of our solar system. It shows the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems worked, and how Galileo used his telescopes to see phases of Venus in order to confirm his belief of a sun centered universe.
Why this is a quality resource
PBS/NOVA productions are always really quality educational videos. This one is a rather simple look at the contributions of Galileo, Copernicus, and Ptolemy, towards discovering the sun-centered universe, without getting too much into the heavy science of their discoveries. This video may be slightly above 4th grade level, but I thought the images and the narration were really good.